Environmental and Toxicology Studies Journal
Figure 2. Original image. Another emerging global issue is the health of bees.
In the news in recent years are terms like the Colony Collapse Disorder CCD , pesticides like the neonicotinic pesticides also called neonicotinoids , and parasites that only reproduce in bee colonies. The general declining health of honeybees and other bees is thought to be related to complex interactions among multiple stressors, including pesticides and parasites, and stressors like poor nutrition due to declining foraging habitats, bee management practices, and a lack of genetic diversity.
Neonicotinoids have been a focus of international attention and their mode of action is on the central nervous system of insects. Neonicotinoids are highly toxic to honeybees and also native bees like bumble bees and blue orchard bees, and sub-lethal levels can affect foraging and the ability to reproduce. Further, neonicotinoids can be persistent in the environment, and can be absorbed by plants and found in pollen and nectar. Learn more about pollinators.
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Bee image captured by Karunakar Rayker. Original Image. Original Infographic. On this page Environmental Toxicology. The interdisciplinary core "branches" of environmental toxicology includes:. You may also continue with doctoral studies in toxicology or environmental toxicology. During the programme you can expect to: understand how chemicals may affect humans and wildlife and how chemical hazards and risks are identified meet substantial applied aspects within risk assessment and testing of chemicals cover the entire chain of the impact of chemicals on nature, e.
For this specialisation we recommend that you start with a good knowledge of chemistry and animal physiology. Student profile You have a broad interest in biology or a more narrowly focused interest in a specific sub-area.
Either way, you are willing to take a lot of responsibility yourself to form your own educational experience from the very wide range of biology courses offered at Uppsala University. Ideally, during your Bachelor's studies, you had the opportunity to work in a laboratory and do some field work as well as use statistics to analyse data from your work. Writing lab reports and shorter essays is something you already have experience doing.
A PhD education is a distinct possibility in your future so you would value coming in close contact with current research and prominent researchers in this international field. The programme leads to a Master of Science credits with Biology as the main field of study.
The Master Programme in Biology, specialising in Environmental Toxicology, starts with the course Toxicology D , but students who already have a strong background in toxicology may instead choose Limnology D. With the aim to provide a deeper understanding of toxicological sciences, the course in toxicology will integrate theoretical knowledge with hands-on experience of different toxicological methods and concepts.
The course covers a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from effects on a cellular level, through specific organ toxicity to the subsequent application in risk assessment of chemicals. The next course, Ecotoxicology, deals with chemicals in the environment - for example their origin, fate, distribution and effects. Within this course, short projects focusing on current ecotoxicological problems will give you an idea about the job assignments of professional ecotoxicologists, for example, environmental risk assessment.
During the first period of the spring semester you are advised to take a course within the areas molecular biology, developmental biology, neuroscience or immunology. This will give you a deep molecular and physiological understanding. The final course of the second semester, Toxicology and Risk Assessment , deepens your knowledge in toxicology and gives practical experience in human health risk assessment. This kind of competence is requested if you plan to work in authorities or in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
During the second year, you can study one or two regular courses, or combine a research training course with a degree project of 30, 45 or 60 credits. This allows you to prepare well for an academic career as well as a career outside academia. See the outline for courses within the programme. Biology instruction at Uppsala University is done in close connection to current research.
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All teachers for the individual courses in the Master's Programme in Biology are active scientists, ensuring that you will get an education that reaches to the absolute forefront of the respective field. The courses provide factual knowledge and practical training in the form of laboratory work and field trips, as well as the ability to solve problems, think analytically and work scientifically. Communication training is integrated in all courses of the programme. The Master's Programme in Biology has a strong international character, and all courses are held in English.
The need of environmental toxicologists in private companies and in public institutions has increased because of REACH, the EU chemical legislation, and you will have the required knowledge and skills to tackle upcoming issues in this field. You can already find environmental toxicologists at public institutions e. Job titles include environmental consultant, environment administrator and environmental risk assessor. The specialisation in Environmental Toxicology provides a solid basis for PhD training in Sweden as well as abroad.
Your most important merit in that respect is your degree project. With a careful choice of the courses and topic for your degree project you will leave this specialisation with a solid theoretical knowledge regarding harmful substances as well as practical knowledge of the analytical and practical methods you need to study them.
As a biologist, you can also work as a teacher or science journalist.
Career support During your whole time as a student UU Careers offers you support and guidance. You have the opportunity to partake in a variety of career activities and events, as well as receive individual career counselling. This service is free of charge for all students at Uppsala University.